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 Instructions to Authors

 
The Journal of the Association of Physician Assistants in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery (JAPACVS) is a quarterly online Journal, which publishes original research work that that keeps members of the APACVS informed of research and the latest surgical and medical techniques associated with the care of cardiac, thoracic and vascular surgery patients. Researchers may submit (1) Original Clinical or Original Experimental Research Articles (2) Case reports (3) Contemporary Reviews (4) Creative Concepts (5) Images (6) Editorial Commentary and (7) Historical Vignette in the following disciplines:


Cardiac Surgery
Vascular Surgery
Thoracic Surgery
CVT Critical Care

All submissions should contribute to improvement or should enlighten a particular aspect in any of the above mentioned subjects. Every submission should adhere to the journal format and style, legibly written in good English, comprehensive, concise and complete. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review.



Types of Manuscripts

 
Original Clinical or Original Experimental Research Articles
Original research articles must not exceed 5000 words. The word count includes all text in the submission, i.e., title page, keywords, abstract, main text, references, acknowledgments, funding, tables, and figure legends; articles are limited to a combined total of 8 figures and/or tables and 35 references. The abstract (250 words or fewer) is required and should be divided into the following 5 subsections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
Review articles should bring up the most important current topics or present interpretative and critical accounts, but not simple compilation, on subjects of general interest. They should be around 12 pages.
Case Reports
Submissions are limited to 6 authors and 2500 words, including text, references (≤15), figure legends, and ≤3 figures. No abstract should be included. All case reports will be considered. Selection priority will be based upon the reporting of new therapies, new complications of therapies, or new mechanisms of diseases.

Contemporary Reviews (Solicited and Unsolicited)

 
Review articles should include a brief abstract and <6000 total words, including references, and tables; the combined figure/table limit is 8.


Images

 
Submissions to "CVT Images and Movies" are limited to a total of 450 words (including title page, keywords, main text, references, etc.), 4 authors, ≤ 5 references, and 1 figure with no more than 2 panels (i.e., Figure 1A and 1B). Figure legends should not be included. Images are judged according to their aesthetic quality, the novelty, importance, and effectiveness of their scientific or clinical message, or their utility as a teaching tool. Unlike case reports, the focus should be on the image, not the narrative.
Authors can also include a single electronic movie (e.g.QuickTime or MPEG1 formats) file or computer animation (e.g. as Power Point file) that expands or enhances the message of the printed images. Animations or movies must provide novel or especially useful means of conveying known principles (e.g. Animations or movies that effectively teach/portray an electrophysiological mechanism or process). If an electronic movie or animation is submitted, the authors must also provide 1 or 2 frames of images (which may appear in print) that convey the essence of the movie's content. A movie legend must be submitted as supplemental material.
Published images, movies, and animations will be made available in high resolution format via a web site to subscribers to JAPACVS.


Letters to the Editor

 
Letters should be double-spaced and should not exceed 400 words. Letters may refer to papers published on the journal website within 3 months. Letters regarding articles posted outside this time frame will not be eligible for consideration. Letters will be reviewed and are subject to editing. They should not contain original data or figures. If accepted for publication, a copy of the letter will be sent to the author(s) of the original article, if applicable. The author(s) will have an opportunity to respond with new material that will be considered for publication with the letter. Letters, with rare exception, will be e-published only.


Editorial Commentary

 
All articles by invitation only. Limited to 1500 words or fewer, including references.
Historical Vignette
All articles by invitation only

Requirements for Original Research Articles

 
The decision to accept a contribution rests with the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board which reserves the right to make alterations in manuscripts submitted for publication if they do not conform to accepted scientific standard or if they are too repetitive. All long papers need sub-headings. The author needs to conform to his/her own area of expertise pertaining to the theory or grounds of knowledge covered and must incorporate a chronological arrangement of ideas and methods when reporting on the research done.
Manuscripts should be neatly typed, single-spaced throughout, including tables, graphs, figures. Manuscript should be on A4 size with at least 1.5 cm margins on all sides. Page numbers should be given accordingly. Prepare the manuscript in Times New Roman font using a font size of 12. Title shall be in a font size 14, bold face capitals. All Headings in the manuscript shall be in font size 12, bold face capitals. Subheading in each section shall be in font size 12, bold face lower case. Italic fonts style should not be used in the main text (Except Latin names or wherever applicable). Standard International Units could be used throughout the text. Authors should not be more than five including corresponding author.

Please do not forward a hard copy or CD of the Manuscripts. Only complete article should be submitted to the JAPACVS e-mail: submissions@japacvs.org

New: When formatting your article, please add continuous line numbers to the document, as well as page numbers.

Peer Review
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

 
Original Clinical and Experimental articles should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions, with appropriate subheadings to make the sections easily understood. A section on Clinical Implications for Experimental articles may be worthwhile.

Introduction

 
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.


Methods

 
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. If the article is an original study describing human or animal studies, a statement regarding local ethics committee or IRB approval must be included in the Methods section.


Results

 
Results should be clear and concise.


Discussion

 
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


Conclusions

 
The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short Conclusion.


Appendices

 
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


Essential title page information:


• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Do not include trade names in titles.
• Short title. Include a short title of 50 or fewer characters.
•Author names, academic degrees, and affiliations. Please include academic degrees after each author’s name. Fellows of the Heart Rhythm Society (FHRS) should be identified by including FHRS after the degree. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
•Word count.The total word count should be included on the title page. The word count includes all text in the submission, i.e., title page, keywords, abstract, main text, references, acknowledgments, funding, tables, and figure legends.


Abstract
Clinical and Experimental articles should include a structured abstract (without references) of fewer than 250 words. Divide the abstract into sections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion that state the importance and potential implications of the observations. Review articles should have an unstructured abstract. All other article types should not include an abstract.


Graphical Abstract

 
Authors are encouraged to submit a graphical abstract, as it draws more attention to the online article. Graphical abstracts are optional and should not be identical to any figures from the article or supplemental data. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Keywords

 
Immediately after the abstract, provide 5-10 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Abbreviations

 
Avoid ALL abbreviations other than standard units of measurement and common abbreviations, such as RV, LV, etc. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable should be spelled out at first mention in both the abstract and the text. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Acknowledgements

 
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of Funding Sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Units

 
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Math Formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Artwork

 
New: For the ease of reviewers, please include figures and legends at the end of the main manuscript MS Word file. Each legend should appear on the same page as the figure it describes. For revised submissions, please also upload each figure as a separate, high resolution figure file. Acceptable file formats are noted below.


Electronic Artwork

 
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the fonts used if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Color Artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. HeartRhythm will no longer charge authors for color figures in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

Figure Captions

 
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Figure captions must be included in the manuscript file; the text of the caption should be editable.


Tables

 
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table should be included on a separate page and designed for economy of space and readability. Notes designated in the tables and all abbreviations should be defined in a footnote. Abbreviations should be identified in alphabetical order. Footnotes should be used in the following order: †, ‡, §, ¶, #. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
References


Citation in text

 
Please ensure that every reference cited in text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text in parentheses. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.


Reference links

 
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web References

 
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data References

 
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.


Reference Style

 
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Please list the first 12 authors in each reference. If there are more than 12 authors, list the first 3 followed by et al. The references should be double spaced and use the same font size as the remainder of the manuscript.


Examples:

Reference to a journal publication:
1. Veltmann C, Papavassiliu T, Konrad T, Doesch C, Kuschyk J, Streitner F, Haghi D, Michaely HJ, Schoenberg SO, Borggrefe M, Wolpert C, Schimpf R. Insights into the location of type I ECG in patients with Brugada syndrome: correlation of ECG and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:414-421.
2. Calkins H, Kuck KH, Cappato R, et al. 2012 HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: Recommendations for patient selection, procedural techniques, patient management and follow-up, definitions, endpoints, and research trial design. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:632-696.

Reference to a book:
3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281-304.

Abbreviations for periodicals cited in the references should follow the style of Index Medicus and can also be accessed at http://www.nlm.nih.gov.

Data Visualization

 
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.


Supplementary Material
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. Supplemental material should be referred to in the main text in sequential order. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Supplementary material is scientific evidence and assumed to be original. If published previously,the source must be cited with permission exactly as required for previously published material and should not include logos, symbolic landmarks, or any other identification of the origin.


Research Data

 
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.


Data Linking

 
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).


Data Statement

 
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


Submission Checklist

 
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:


Cover letter confirming:
• The article is original, with no portion under simultaneous consideration for publication elsewhere or previously published, except for an abstract of fewer than 400 words.
• All authors have read and approve the submission
• One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers

• All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Total word count on the title page
• Keywords
• Each figure caption is included on the same page as the figure it describes
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• Manuscript includes continuous line numbering;
• Manuscript is double-spaced, single columned, and pages are numbered.
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)

 

 

      

              

 

 

 

 

 

                                                    

       

 

 

 

 

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